Author Archives: elliewilson24

Branching off from Home #4

For the past two days of class, we have gotten to learn about the other topics for this project. Each project was similar to my own, with a Powerpoint that had background information and then a Videolicious. While taking notes, I focused on how each topic related to the theme of “People, Places, and Power”. Below are my notes, compiled into 2-3 sentences describing how they fit with the theme.

European Imperialism in Africa:

Europeans thought that they were more powerful/held above Africans because of Social Darwinism. Because of this, Europeans thought it was fine to barge in and take control over African countries.

Labor vs. Big Business:

In America, there was a select amount of very rich businessmen (Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan), who had power over their workers. When the group of workers thought that they did not have enough power, they grouped together in the same place to strike against their unfair treatment.

Native Americans in the West:

The American government used their power to move Indians out of the Great Plains, where they originally lived, to new places. Indians were not only forced to live in new places, but forced to accept American culture into their own.

Immigration from Asia:

When Asians were immigrating from Asia to America, they faced many hardships. The American government used their power to create laws that restricted Asians from coming into the US and working (Chinese Exclusion Act). Sometimes, when Asians were able to work but were not being treated fairly, they would protest together for better wages and conditions.

Immigration from Europe:

Similar to people migrating from Asia, Europeans faced many hardships in trying to get into the United States. People in the United States thought they were above immigrants, and thought that they should have power over the immigrants. When immigrants came over, they usually lived in Ghettos (areas that only one group of people lived in) because they were afraid of living anywhere else.

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Branching off from Home #3

Our next step in the process for this project was to get together with the people who had the topic “Imperialism in America” and combine our knowledge to get a deeper understanding. Being able to share all of our ideas helped us learn even more about Imperialism in America. The first new idea that I learned was how power can come from many places. This connects to Imperialism in America because power came from newspapers, the government, as well as naval officers. Another new Enduring Understanding that I gained was “The goal of war is often times not solely to end the conflict but gain control of strategic locations and political power of the place”. This helped me understand that countries had ulterior motives when trying to “help” other countries. I also learned about the Great White Fleet, and how America used it to show off their new power gained from Imperialism. Finally, I was introduced to this new picture.

Newspapers. “The World, February 17 1898.” Accessed June 11, 2014.http://www.newspapers.com/newspage/3170036/.

This picture shows the power of propaganda, and how people could easily be morphed by what they read. Based off of this picture, as an American citizen, I would think that America needed to do something about the blowing up of this ship.

Overall, I thought my group did a great job of working together. We all shared our Enduring Understandings, and many of them had the same basic ideas. Both Parker and Andrew had new insights that I did not find, so it was very helpful for them to share with me. Simone had great images, which were very helpful as well because I am a visual learner. With the Videolicious, we ran into a few problems because we needed to talk very fast. But, we persevered to make an awesome video!

Here is a link to the video: http://video.videolicious.com/1ed9c7d4-b210-4b86-b23e-da44a608c52c

 

Branching off from Home #2

Once I had finished reading the textbook information and required reading on Imperialism in America, it was next time to dig deeper and analyze some primary sources on the topic. I used a webquest about the Spanish American War (http://historicalthinkingmatters.org/spanishamericanwar/). This website had an assortment of primary sources regarding the war, and included questions and sourcing help to give further understanding to the documents. Along with this webquest, the website gave two additional webquests that gave multiple websites full of primary sources about Imperialism and America. Using this new information gained from the primary sources, I was able to add more key terms, as well as a whole new Enduring Understanding. It also gave me a chance to cut of key words and phrases that might have seemed important at the beginning, but as I went along they did not seem to fit anymore. Finally, I found new details to support my first three Enduring Understandings.

 

Key Terms/Phrases

Imperialism: When stronger nations attempt to create empires by dominating weaker nations- economically, politically, culturally, or militarily

Nationalism: devotion to one’s nation

Annex: to join a new territory to an existing country

Monroe Doctrine: Document that declared the United States neutral in European Wars. It also warned other nations not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere.

Manifest Destiny: American settlers thought they were destined to expand throughout the continent.

Captain Alfred T. Mahan: argued America’s economic future hinged on gaining new markets abroad. The US needed a powerful navy to protect these markets from foreign rivals.

Naval Act of 1889: called for the construction of more naval artillery- made the United State’s navy one of the most powerful in the world.

Theodore Roosevelt: President of the United States from 1901-1909. Thought imperialism would increase the American spirit.

Jingoism: burst of American pride and the desire for an aggressive foreign policy.

Platt Amendment: stated they America would remove troops from Cuba only if Cuba would not enter any foreign agreements and allow the US to form naval bases and intervene whenever necessary.

Teller Amendment: Promised that that the United States wouldn’t annex Cuba.

Sphere of influence: an area of economic or military control

The Cuban Rebellion: rebelled against Spain, but then the US came in and took over led to the Treaty of Paris.

The Treaty of Paris: Gave the US the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam. They became “unincorporated” territories of the US, which meant they weren’t intended for eventual statehood.

Surplus products: products that the citizens of America were not able to use, and needed to be traded to other markets

American Anti-imperialist League: organized in opposition to the annexation of the Philippine Islands

1. Countries who wanted to gain power globally would do it by gaining control of people and places outside of their territory.

  • The Spanish-American War led to America taking Cuba away from Spain. Cuba gained independence from Spain, but because The US won the war they got control over Cuba: “Many Cubans felt that the United States had betrayed its goal of securing independence from Cuba. To some, it seemed that the United States had simply replaced Spain as Cuba’s sovereign nation” (America textbook, 594).
  • America annexed Hawaii because they needed it for naval reasons: “After briefly considering whether the Hawaiian people wished to be annexed, Congress was swayed by arguments that the United States needed naval stations in Hawaii in order to protect its world trade” (America textbook, 595).
  • America took over the Philippines in order to increase their power positioning in the Pacific.

“June-October 1898

U.S. business and government circles united around a policy of retaining all or part of the Philippines.

June 3

President McKinley broadened U.S. position to include an island in the Marianas, as a strategic link in the route from the United States to the Pacific Coast of Asia” (Chronology for the Philippine Islands and Guam in the Spanish-American War).

 

2. In a country’s decision to gain power over other countries, the citizens of the country trying to take over debate the validity of taking over places and people of the other countries.

  • Some thought it was a good idea, because it would help the economy of America: “The profit system, with it natural tendency for expansionism, had already begun to look overseas. The severe depression that began in 1893 strengthened an idea developing within the political and financial elite of the country” (The Empire of the People, 297).
  • “In Cuba, alone, there are 15,000,000 acres of forest unacquainted with the axe. There are exhaustless mines of iron…. There are millions of acres yet unexplored….

It means new employment and better wages for every laboring man in the Union….” (Excerpt from Albert J. Beveridge’s Senate campaign speech, September 16, 1898.)

  • People also thought it was a good idea because it would unite the country: “And would not a foreign adventure deflect some of the rebellious energy that went into strikes and protest movements towards an external enemy? Would it not unit people with government, with the armed forces, instead of against them?” (The Empire of the People, 297).

 

  • “Awake! it is no dream;

Dost hear the sailors scream?

Comrades will you go?

Avenge the cruel blow!”

Image

(Marie Elizabeth Lamb, Awake United States! (New Orleans, LA: 1898).)

  • Some did not support the idea of America taking over other countries (like Cuba), because they thought that it was unnecessary and would ruin the Cuban’s way of life: “’We assume that what we like and practice, and what we think better, must come as a welcome blessing to Spanish-Americans and Filipinos. This is grossly and obviously untrue. They hate our ways. They are hostile to our ideas. Our religion, language, institutions, and manners offend them’ –William G. Sumner, Yale University professor, in a 1898 speech” (America textbook, 605).

 

3. People used the power of the press to influence the idea of taking over places outside of ones country.

  • Journalists covering the Spanish-American war hyperbolized war stories about Cuban rebels to get American’s support for the US to intervene: “Their sensational headlines and stories, known as yellow journalism, whipped up American public opinion in favor of the rebels.” (America textbook, 591).
  • Socialist newspapers warned that the hype created from the sinking of the Maine was really for America to advance their power: “A gigantic…and cunningly-devised scheme is being worked ostensibly to place the United States in the front rank as a naval and military power. The real reason is that the capitalists will have the whole thing and, when any workingmen dare to ask for the living wage… they will be shot down like dogs in the street” (The Craftsman, The Empire of the People, 307).
  • Cartoons were made to show that America was welcoming in Cuba to their country, and saving them from the bondage of Spain.Image (Miss Cuba Receives an Invitation, Chicago Record-Herald, 1901. Chicago, Illinois.)

 

  • Some could view this account as a way to get Americans to push for involvement in Cuba: Four hundred and sixty women and children thrown on the ground, heaped pell-mell as animals, some in a dying condition, others sick and others dead, without the slightest cleanliness, nor the least help….” ( Excerpt from an unsigned enclosure included with a telegram sent by Fitzhugh Lee, U.S. Consul-General in Cuba, November 27, 1897. Havana, Cuba.)

 

 

4. To validate taking over other people and places, countries would say that if they did not the safety and power of themselves would be put at risk.

  • While declaring war on Spain, President McKinley said that one of the main reasons why he did was because Americans were in danger

“With such a conflict waged for years in an island so near us and with which our people have such trade and business relations; when the lives and liberty of our citizens are in constant danger and their property destroyed and themselves ruined; where our trading vessels are liable to seizure and are seized at our very door by warships of a foreign nation,”

 

  • “Such proceedings would seem to be in line with that prudence and foresight necessary to afford safety to the Americans residing on the island, and to their properties, both of which, I have every reason to know, are objects of the greatest concern to our Government” (Excerpt from telegram sent by Fitzhugh Lee, U.S. Consul-General in Cuba, December 3, 1897. Havana, Cuba).

 

To reflect on the new information I have, it was assigned to look at our topic (in my case, Imperialism in America) as someone who is at the bottom of the power struggle. Looking at Imperialism in America, I believe a citizen of Cuba would be at the bottom of the power ladder, because they do not have much say in anything. Not having a say in who ruled them, Cubans were constantly being thrown back and forth. First, they were ruled by Spain, who tried to force their beliefs upon them. They were forced to relocate and live in areas created by the Spanish government, and people were treated very poorly in these areas (Reconcentration Camps, from webquest). When America came to fight against Spain, there was a glimmer of hope because the Filipinos thought the Americans would help them gain independence. But this was not the case, and it seemed that America just took over Spain’s job. The pushed their beliefs and culture onto the Cubans, not caring about how they would react to this new way of life. William G. Sumner reflected on this idea, saying “We assume that what we like and practice, and what we think better, must come as a welcome blessing to Spanish-Americans and Filipinos. This is grossly and obviously untrue. They hate our ways. They are hostile to our ideas. Our religion, language, institutions, and manners offend them” (America textbook, 605). Imperialism affected citizens of Cuba negatively because they did not have the ability to rule themselves and live freely.

Branching Off from Home #1

For our last unit in Honors History 10, the theme is “People, Places, and Power”. These three ideas can all connect to one another, and are related. The “People” aspect focuses on how people and their actions can affect an event. How people come together and react to certain events can reflect on their culture and shows what their common goal is. The “Place” aspect is how where one lives can effect their ideas and how they respond to certain events. “Power” can combine the two, and also determine the ownership of each. Power can be found by many road- economically, militarily, or even religiously. When given these terms and themes, we were next given topics to choose from that connected to the topic. I chose “Imperialism: America” because this was one that I did not know a lot about. I did not really know that America used imperialism, so I thought it would be interesting to learn about it. When Ms. Gallagher was describing each topic, this one seemed the most interesting because she said that although we think America never took over other countries because of out patriotic and “freedom for all” beliefs, we did.

 

Key Terms/Phrases

Imperialism: When stronger nations attempt to create empires by dominating weaker nations- economically, politically, culturally, or militarily 

Nationalism: devotion to one’s nation

Annex: to join a new territory to an existing country 

Monroe Doctrine: Document that declared the United States neutral in European Wars. It also warned other nations not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere.

Natural resources: Resources that come from the earth, for example rubber and petroleum. Usually come from underdeveloped countries 

Manifest Destiny: American settlers thought they were destined to expand throughout the continent.

Captain Alfred T. Mahan: argued America’s economic future hinged on gaining new markets abroad. The US needed a powerful navy to protect these markets from foreign rivals.

Naval Act of 1889: called for the construction of more naval artillery- made the United State’s navy one of the most powerful in the world.

Theodore Roosevelt: President of the United States from 1901-1909. Thought imperialism would increase the American spirit.

Jingoism: burst of American pride and the desire for an aggressive foreign policy. 

Platt Amendment: stated they America would remove troops from Cuba only if Cuba would not enter any foreign agreements and allow the US to form naval bases and intervene whenever necessary.

Teller Amendment: Promised that that the United States wouldn’t annex Cuba.

Sphere of influence: an area of economic or military control 

The Cuban Rebellion: rebelled against Spain, but then the US came in and took over led to

The Treaty of Paris: Gave the US the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam. They became “unincorporated” territories of the US, which meant they weren’t intended for eventual statehood. 

Surplus products: products that the citizens of America were not able to use, and needed to be traded to other markets

 

Enduring Understandings

1. Countries who wanted to gain power globally would do it by gaining control of people and places outside of their territory.

  • The Spanish-American War led to America taking Cuba away from Spain. Cuba gained independence from Spain, but because The US won the war they got control over Cuba: “Many Cubans felt that the United States had betrayed its goal of securing independence from Cuba. To some, it seemed that the United States had simply replaced Spain as Cuba’s sovereign nation” (America textbook, 594).
  • America annexed Hawaii because they needed it for naval reasons: “After briefly considering whether the Hawaiian people wished to be annexed, Congress was swayed by arguments that the United States needed naval stations in Hawaii in order to protect its world trade” (America textbook, 595).

2. In a country’s decision to gain power over other countries, the citizens of the country trying to take over debate the validity of taking over places and people of the other countries.

  • Some thought it was a good idea, because it would help the economy of America: “The profit system, with it natural tendency for expansionism, had already begun to look overseas. The severe depression that began in 1893 strengthened an idea developing within the political and financial elite of the country” (The Empire of the People, 297).
  • People also thought it was a good idea because it would unite the country: “And would not a foreign adventure deflect some of the rebellious energy that went into strikes and protest movements towards an external enemy? Would it not unit people with government, with the armed forces, instead of against them?” (The Empire of the People, 297).
  • Some did not support the idea of America taking over other countries (like Cuba), because they thought that it was unnecessary and would ruin the Cuban’s way of life: “’We assume that what we like and practice, and what we think better, must come as a welcome blessing to Spanish-Americans and Filipinos. This is grossly and obviously untrue. They hate our ways. They are hostile to our ideas. Our religion, language, institutions, and manners offend them’ –William G. Sumner, Yale University professor, in a 1898 speech” (America textbook, 605). 

3. People used the power of the press to influence the idea of taking over places outside of ones country.

  • Journalists covering the Spanish-American war hyperbolized war stories about Cuban rebels to get American’s support for the US to intervene: “Their sensational headlines and stories, known as yellow journalism, whipped up American public opinion in favor of the rebels.” (America textbook, 591).
  • Socialist newspapers warned that the hype created from the sinking of the Maine was really for America to advance their power: “A gigantic…and cunningly-devised scheme is being worked ostensibly to place the United States in the front rank as a naval and military power. The real reason is that the capitalists will have the whole thing and, when any workingmen dare to ask for the living wage… they will be shot down like dogs in the street” (The Craftsman, The Empire of the People, 307).

 

My topic, “Imperialism: America” connects to the theme “People, Places, and Power” because it shows how America took over people and places that weren’t their own to gain power. With the Spanish-American War, America took Cuba from Spain by saying that Cuba should be free. But, America took over Cuba and their people to advance their own military power. Having Cuba allowed them to put naval bases to protect America as they went out further conquering other areas (America textbook, 585). America also took over people and places to gain economic power. A statistic given in The Emperor and the People said, “While it was true that in 1898, 90 percent of American products were sold at home, the 10 percent sold abroad amounted to a billion dollars” (301). This shows how imperialism was a great economic gain for America. This topic connects very well to the theme of “People, Places, and Power” because it shows how power can be gained through people and places.

Southern Murder

Throughout time, Blacks had been given false hope that they could be viewed as equals to Whites. But because of Whites not willing to accept them as equals, it leads them to be continuously oppressed. It first came with the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, where Abraham Lincoln set slaves free. Blacks were considered freedmen, because they were no longer tied down by slavery. This gave them temporary hope, but was not enough to give them complete freedom. It was next through the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments, all created after the Emancipation Proclamation, to give Blacks equality. Reconstruction was the era after the Civil War, in which these Amendments were put into place to try and enforce that Blacks and Whites were now equals. This era, which went from 1865 to 1877, was excellent for Blacks, because military enforcement in the South made voting and becoming a government official possible. But it ended up not working well, with Blacks being attacked by Whites not yet ready for equality. The end of Reconstruction again ended Blacks temporary hope that they could be viewed as equals to Whites. Both the North and the South had a part in removing the military enforcements and putting down the false hope instilled in Blacks It was not the North ignoring the racist attacks down South that killed Reconstruction, but the South who instituted these attacks towards Blacks that put an end Reconstruction.

 

Although the North did not kill Reconstruction in the South, it gave white supremacist groups like the Ku Klux Klan the ability to kill it by ignoring the issue. The KKK was against Reconstruction and given Black’s rights. Without the North watching every move of the South, these groups were able to attack Blacks without worry of the North intervening. The North was not focused on the South because they believed they had bigger issues to deal with, like the Panic of 1873, or corruptness in the Grant’s administration. A political cartoon from Harper’s Weekly in 1876 shows President Grant digging himself out of a barrel, which is labeled with multiple different issues going on throughout the whole United States, not just the South. With his head in the barrel, there was no way for Grant to see other issues, which included Southern aggression towards Blacks. The North decided to focus on the economic problem of America, because it was something that affected everyone. They stopped caring about Reconstruction because it did not affect them as much, but also because they were not ready for Blacks to be viewed as equal.

Image

Source C

Another cartoon from Harper’s Weekly depicts how a White illustrator viewed Blacks in government. These Black officials were drawn with monkey like facial expressions, and arguing. While these Black men are being aggressive towards each other, there are Whites in the background who are not arguing, looking very peaceful. This cartoon showed that even Northern Whites did not think Blacks should be allowed into the government. They may have been supporters of ending slavery, but Whites were not ready to fully accept Blacks as equals.

Image

Source D

Northern Whites did not fully support the idea of Reconstruction because the did not want to see Blacks become a part of their government. This lack of interest with the added focus towards the financial problems of America gave the South space to kill Reconstruction.

 

The South killed Reconstruction because they forced Blacks away from government positions. This allowed racist Whites to take these open spots, and remove Reconstruction to continue their idea that Blacks should not be equal with Whites. They had many ways of keeping Blacks out of office, including lynching and bribery. In a testimony, given in 1872 against the Ku Klux Klan, a former slave who had become part of the Georgia State Legislature told about what they had done to him: “They said to me, ‘Do you think you will ever vote another damned Radical ticket?’ I said, ‘Id there was an election tomorrow, I would have voted the Radical ticket.’ They set in a whipped me a thousand licks more…” (B). The South attacked Blacks, and tried to scare them to the point where they would not vote in the elections. They stopped Blacks from voting for Radical Republicans, who supported Black citizenship and punishment for former Confederates. In the same testimony, the former slave spoke about how he was bribed to not continue his position in office: “About two days before they whipped me they offered me $5,000 to go with them and said they would pay me $2,5000 in cash if I would let another man go to the legislature in my place” (B). This tactic of luring Blacks out of holding position in government allowed Southern Whites to step in and claim these open spots. Not only did the KKK attack Blacks, but they also attacked Whites who were trying to aid Blacks, A print depicting two carpetbaggers being hung by the KKK, made in 1868, shows how white supremacist groups would go after anyone who supported Reconstruction. A carpetbagger is someone from the North who went down to the South to help with Reconstruction. Along with attacking these men, they would also attack Scalawags, who were Southern Whites supporting carpetbaggers and freedmen. Not even Whites were safe down South if they supported Reconstruction.

Image

Source A

Even with aid from the North, the South used terror tactics to keep Blacks from gaining ground. With Blacks not running for office because they were scared for their lives, racist, Southern whites filled the spots. These White government officials in the South ended Reconstruction because they did not believe that Blacks and Whites should be equal.

 

Without the North’s focus, the South was able to end Reconstruction by keeping Blacks out of official government positions. The North was worried about the country’s finance problems, which outweighed Reconstruction to them because it directly affected all of America. With both the North and the South not fully ready for Blacks to be viewed as equals, the South seized the opportunity to oppress Blacks through terror attacks. These attacks were so horrifying that Blacks no longer would run for office in fear for their life. This gave Whites a clear path to government positions, where they killed Reconstruction. The South was responsible because they allowed the KKK to scare Blacks into not participating in government, and then electing racist, White Southerners who got rid of Reconstruction.

Sources:

A: Independent Monitor, September 1, 1868. Alabama Department of Archives and History, Montgomery, Alabama.

B: Abram Colby, testimony to a joint House and Senate Committee in 1872

C: Cartoon of Grant, Harper’s Weekly, 1876

D: Cartoon of Blacks in legislature, The cover of Harper’s Weekly, March 14, 1874

A War Between Brothers

Gettysburg was a turning point in the Civil War because it shifted the advantage from the South up to the North, where they maintained their edge and went on to win the war. In the beginning of the war, the South had the momentum, because they had pride for what they were fighting for and they were defending their home turf. But as the war waged on, they were loosing moral, as well supplies.  The battle of Gettysburg would have been a huge moral booster for them, seeing as if they had not won a battle in a long time. Also, this battle was taking place in the North, while most of the other battles had been fought in the South. If the South won, they would have been able to bring much needed resources back down to their bases.

Image

This picture shows how most battles took place up North.

Since the North won, the South became devastated. Not only had they not been able to get more supplies, but even their leader, Robert E. Lee, was giving up. In a letter to the president he wrote, “I therefore, in all sincerity, request Your Excellency to take measures to supply my place”. He did not feel as if he was fit for the job anymore, and it showed. To add on to their troubles, the battle of Gettysburg had one of the highest mortality rates for both sides. Both sides had about the same number of people die, but the South did not have enough men to replace the dead. They lost 20,000 to 25,000 men, but only had a total of 1,200,000. Although this was a negative turning point for the South, it was a very positive turning point for the North. Even thought they lost 230, 040 men in the battle, they had in total six million men. This battle also allowed Abraham Lincoln to give the Emancipation Proclamation, which allowed slaves in rebelling states to be free. This boosted moral in the North, and also changed the whole reason of the war. Before, the war was viewed as a war about states rights: the South was upset that the federal government was dictating what individual states could do. Once Lincoln gave his speech, the reason for the war switched to being about slavery. This speech did not cause the end of the war, though. Lincoln and his army needed to find a way to completely end it, and the way they did was through a strategy called “total war”.

“Total war” is when an army goes all in to completely deplete the resources of their opponents. This even includes going after civilians, which is where the controversy comes in.  Some view it as excessive, and aggressive to attack the innocent citizens living in the area. But in this situation of the Civil war, it was acceptable for Grant, Sheridan, and Sherman to conduct a total war campaign in the Confederacy. The war had been going on for much longer than they all had originally thought, and it needed a way to be ended. The quickest way to do this was to take all the South’s resources. They destroyed towns and cities, along with farmland and railroads. This made the Confederates unable to support themselves. Vicksburg, a key city to the Confederacy, was very tough to capture because of its position. The only way it was captured was when the Union went full out on it. It caused many citizens to live in caves, but it did give them complete control of the Mississippi River.  Grant told Sherman, “Do all the damage to railroads and crops you can… If the war is to last another year, we want the Shenandoah Valley to remain a barren waste.”One specific way they destroyed the South was destroying railroads, a tactic known as “Sherman Neckties”. This was when the Union would heat up the railroad, and morph them into shapes so the trains couldn’t travel along them. Along with this, they also slaughtered livestock, and stole crops for themselves. Although an aggressive and devastating tactic, total war lead to the end of the Civil War.

For both sides, the end of the war a big sign of relief. For the North, they were happy that they had won, and that the country was whole once again. And for the South, they were happy simply because it was over and they could stop fighting. The soldiers were especially relieved, because the war had gone on for a lot longer than they thought. When the Northern soldiers celebrated the victory, their general told them to stop, because now the men they had defeated were their countrymen. Although the war separated the country, one side winning brought them back together. This end of the war meant there needed to be a lot of healing and patriotism between the two sides.  But for some extremist confederates, the end of the war was devastating because now freed slaves were considered equal. One man, John Wilkes Booth, took it to the extreme and assassinated Lincoln. The assassination created uproar from all places in the United States, and causes citizens to mourn their great leader. The country mourned in may ways for Lincoln, through parades and poems. Lincoln’s death was a sad way to end the Civil War, at a time where the country was finally starting to heal.

 

This a is picture of the procession to Lincoln’s funeral. This shows how many people cared for him.
(http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/alhtml/alrb/stbdsd/00406600/001.jpg)

This is a poem about Lincoln’s assassination. (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/alhtml/alrb/stbdsd/00501700/001.jpg)

This is a picture of the execution of the people who killed Lincoln. This shows how negatively people reacted to them, as well as how they wanted to make examples out of them. (http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/alhtml/alrb/stbdsd/00408900/001.jpg)

 

Life Gets Worse Before it Gets Better

During the Civil War, it was acceptable for Blacks to submit to some discrimination in the military in order to gain advancement for the future. In class, we learned about two different instances where blacks submitted to whites, which lead to their freedom or advancement in later years.

Blacks who were allowed into the army were allowed in with lower pay, and were not treated as equals. They were mainly accepted into the army because whites would rather them die than themselves. In an excerpt from the song  “Private Miles O’Reilly” by Charles G. Halpine, they sing “But as for me, upon my soul! So liberal are we here, I’ll let Sambo be murthered instead of myself”. The soldiers thought lesser of the Blacks, and did not think is was as bad for them to be killed in combat. But as the war went on and Blacks were more involved in the army, they began to gain respect and move up in the ranks.A union soldier from 1863 reflected on Blacks being in the military, saying “a year ago last January I didn’t like to hear anything of emancipation. Last fall accepted confiscation of Rebel’s negros quietly. In January took to emancipation readily, and now… am becoming so (color) blind that I that I can’t see why they will not make soldiers… I almost begin to think of applying for a position in a (black) regiment myself”. This quote shows the changing views of white soldiers in the military towards Black soldiers. Although they had to face lower wages and discrimination in the beginning, towards the end Whites started to realize that Blacks should be allowed to fight as equals.

Another instance where it was acceptable for Blacks to accept discrimination was with Silas Dean, who was a slave depicted as a Confederate soldier in a portrait.

taken from the class notes

taken from the class notes

In Silas’s case, it was acceptable for him to follow along with his master, even though it was degrading. The majority of Blacks would never fight for the Confederacy, because that was the side that was fighting for slavery. But because Silas obeyed his master and hung around, he eventually gained his freedom. He was released from slavery by his owner only because he was so loyal. If he has submitted to the discrimination of his master and refused to pose for the picture, he most likely would have never been freed. Obeying his master ultimately led to Silas’ freedom from slavery.